Everything Everywhere All at Once: Why and How to Use Multiverse Analysis
There are usually many different ways to test a hypothesis, even within a single data set. This analysis flexibility has been framed as a problem of "questionable research practices" or "p-hacking". Pre-registering an analysis plan can remove this flexibility, but there is often more than one right way to analyse the data; when there are multiple equally valid approaches, pre-registering just one analysis strategy can miss important aspects of the data. An alternative to pre-registering a single analysis is to conduct – and report – the full set of reasonable analyses. This approach, called “multiverse analysis” (Steegen et al., 2016), is gaining traction but can be challenging to implement and report, and is sometimes misinterpreted. I will discuss how to align the design of a multiverse analysis with your research goals and strategies for reporting and interpreting the results.